: Differend: Phrases in Dispute (Theory and History of Literature) ( ): Jean-Francois Lyotard: Books. This original study examines Jean-François Lyotard’s philosophical concept of the differend and details its unexplored implications for literature. it provides a. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box

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Legitimation by performativity lends itself to what Lyotard calls “terror” – the exclusion of players from language games or the exclusion of certain games entirely.

Although one may find idioms, or new ways of expressing oneself that afford greater possibilities for communication, the very nature of the differend as inexpressible precludes any idiom from accurately de picting in the dominant discourse the wrong that was done. Lyotard’s own style of writing in Libidinal Economy is one attempt to do this: The changing status of science and technology is a primary feature of the postmodern condition, and Lyotard calls certain new forms of science postmodern.

The Kantian Critique of History, trans. In response to these threats, Lyotard proposes that the public be given free access to memory and data banks.

His thought remains pivotal in contemporary debates surrounding philosophy, politics, social theory, cultural studies, art and aesthetics. Postmodern science is about the generation of new ideas rather than the efficient application of existing knowledge.

Although one may fi nd a phrase that approximates a communication of the wrong done this will always be unsatisfactory.

Log In Sign Up. With vast amounts of knowledge stored digitally in databases, who decides what knowledge is worth storing what is legitimate knowledge and who has access to these databases?

Jean François Lyotard

The libidinal philosophy engages with art on the level of its affective force: Rather, when attempting to express a wrong what must occur is that the original feeling must be translated into a phrase, or idiom, in the dominant discourse. Rather, one can see in his writings a concern for victims of injustice and a desire to provide a means for correcting the problem. This surmise is no longer hyperbolic: Author Information Ashley Woodward Email: Lyotard does not believe that the innovations he predicts in postmodern education will necessarily have a detrimental effect on erudition.


Who is being addressed and why? Paganism is the attempt to judge without pre-existing criteria, in matters of truth, beauty, politics and ethics.

Marxism, Lyotard believed, failed to account for the desire that pushed those very students into the streets in the first place. He rejects the difgerend of a master-discourse later called a metanarrative that is thought to provide the basis for judgement in all situations. Lyotard sees Lacan’s application of Saussurean linguistics to psychoanalysis as particularly worrisome. Toward the Postmodern, ed.

Jean François Lyotard (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

The case is a differend because the harm done to the victims cannot be presented in the standard of judgment upheld by Faurisson. He does, however, see a problem with the legitimation of knowledge by performativity.

In postmodernity, knowledge has become primarily a saleable commodity.

Postmodern science searches for instabilities in systems, undermining predictability. One cannot eliminate the violence done by the necessary structure of language, but one can choose a self-reflective path throu gh language in an attempt lyorard avoid future violence and resolve current wrongs.

Returning to Freud, Lyotard develops a theory of libidinal forces as figural, as disruptive of reason and representation. Lyotard argues that Auschwitz offers something that is unpresentable in the presentation of history itself: Bauman, Zygmunt,Intimations of PostmodernityLondon: They can be linked one onto the other in accordance with an end fixed by the a genre of discourse …Genres of discourse supply rules for linking together heterogeneous phrases, rules that are proper for attaining certain goals: However, if the dominant dis course were able to express the original wrong, then a differend would never hav e occurred in the first place.


His father, Jean-Pierre Lyotard, was a sales representative. Capital gives political hegemony to the economic discourse. The term “paganism” refers to a way of thinking that takes into account and strives to do justice to incommensurable differences.

This goal directs fifferend phrases are linked on from one to another.

He develops this view of language by appealing to Saul Kripke’s concept of digferend proper name as a “rigid designator” and by defining “reality” in an original way. Any other procedure for resolution leads to more violence, and f urther differends. Furthermore, he does not see the subject as a transcendent and immutable entity, but as produced ,yotard wider social and political forces. Ruthrof, Horst, ‘Differend and Agnostics: The law of concatenation states that these linkages must be made – that is, a phrase must be followed by another phrase – but that how to link is never determinate.

The victim may not be believed, may be thought to be mad, or not be understood. Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi Manchester: Lyotard became an astute and strident political militant over the next fifteen years, writing works that would later be collected in Political Writings This all may be the cas e but ultimately Lyotard recognizes that to resolve an injustice one needs to ta ke a stance and then defend that stance.

Lyotard is here beginning to describe a region on which libidinal intensities take place and on which they meet with the dispositifs that channel libidinal energy.

The Differend

Lyotard takes Barnett Newman’s work as a paragon of postmodern, avant-garde art. Postmodernism Lyotard abandoned his libidinal philosophy in the later lyotwrd of the seventies, beginning a philosophy of paganism that developed, by the eighties, into his unique version of postmodernism.

Le Castor Astral,