LEON FESTINGER TEORIA DE LA DISONANCIA COGNITIVA PDF

Según Leon Festinger, autor de la teoría de la Disonancia Cognitiva hace más de 40 años, “las personas no soportamos mantener al mismo. Disonancia cognitiva y percepción. Esta teoría defiende que la disonancia es un sentimiento desagradable que motiva a la Leon Festinger. Transcript of Teroria de la Disonancia Cognitiva de Leon Festinger Esta teoría trata de predecir los cambios que ocurrirán en las actitudes de.

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Leon Cpgnitiva 8 May — 11 February was an American social psychologistperhaps best known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory. His theories and research are credited with renouncing the previously dominant behaviorist view of social psychology festknger demonstrating the inadequacy of stimulus-response teoris accounts of human behavior. He is also known in social network theory for the proximity effect or propinquity. Festinger studied psychology festknger Kurt Lewindisonzncia important figure in modern social psychology, at the University of Iowagraduating in ; [5] however, he did not develop an interest in social psychology until after joining the faculty at Lewin’s Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in His father, an embroidery manufacturer, had “left Russia a radical and atheist and remained faithful to these views throughout his life.

After graduating, Festinger worked as a research associate at Iowa from toand then as a statistician for the Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots at the University of Rochester from to during World War II. It was at MIT that Festinger, in his own words, “became, by fiat, a social psychologist, and immersed myself in the field with all its difficulties, vaguenesses, and challenges.

As Festinger himself recalls, “the years at M. Yet, this endeavor “started as almost an accident” [26] while Festinger was conducting a study on the impact of architectural and ecological factors on student housing satisfaction for the university. Although the proximity effect or propinquity was an important direct finding from the study, Festinger and his collaborators also noticed correlations between the degree of friendship within a group of residents and cgonitiva similarity of opinions within the group, [27] thus raising unexpected questions regarding communication within social groups and the development of group standards of attitudes and behaviors.

Teoría de la Disonancia Cognitiva by Begoña Urbieta on Prezi

He then moved to the University of Minnesota inand then on to Stanford University in During this time, Festinger published his highly influential paper on social comparison theory, extending his prior theory regarding the evaluation of attitudes in social groups to the evaluation of abilities in social groups. Despite such recognition, Festinger left the field of social psychology inattributing his decision to “a conviction that had been growing in me at the time that I, personally, was in a rut and needed an injection of intellectual stimulation from new sources to continue to be productive.

Inhe closed his laboratory, citing dissatisfaction with working “on narrower and narrower technical problems. Writing infour years after closing his laboratory, Festinger expressed a sense of disappointment with what he and his field had accomplished:.

Festinger subsequently began exploring prehistoric archaeological data, meeting disohancia Stephen Jay Gould to discuss ideas and visiting archaeological sites to investigate primitive toolmaking firsthand. He decided not to pursue treatment, and died on Fe 11, Festinger, Stanley Schachter, and Kurt Lepn examined the choice of friends among college students living in married student housing at MIT.

The team showed that the formation of ties was predicted by propinquitythe physical proximity between where students lived, and not just by similar tastes or beliefs as conventional wisdom assumed. In other words, people simply tend to befriend their neighbors.

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They also found that functional distance predicted social ties as well. For example, in a two-storey apartment building, people living on the lower floor next to a stairway are functionally closer to upper-floor residents than are others living on the same lower floor.

efstinger The lower-floor residents near the cgnitiva are more likely than their lower-floor neighbors to befriend those living on the upper floor. Festinger and his collaborators viewed these findings as evidence that friendships often develop based on passive contacts e. In his paper, Festinger postulated that one of the major pressures to communicate arises from uniformity within a group, which in turn arises from two sources: He further argued that pressures to communicate arise when discrepancies in opinions or attitudes exist among members of a group, and laid out a series hypotheses regarding determinants of when group members communicate, whom they communicate with, and how recipients of communication react, citing existing experimental evidence to support his arguments.

Leon Festinger

Festinger labeled communications arising from such pressures toward uniformity as “instrumental communication” in that the communication is not an end in itself but a means to reduce discrepancies between the communicator and others in the group.

Instrumental communication is contrasted with “consummatory communication” where communication is the end, such as emotional expression. Festinger’s influential social comparison theory can be viewed as an extension of his prior theory related to the reliance on social reality for evaluating attitudes and opinions lx the realm of abilities.

Starting with the premise that teiria have diaonancia innate drive to accurately evaluate their opinions and abilities, Festinger postulated that people will seek to evaluate their opinions and abilities by comparing them with those of others. To use Festinger’s example, a chess novice does not compare lw chess abilities to those of recognized chess masters, [47] nor does a college student compare his intellectual abilities to those of a toddler.

People will, moreover, take action to reduce discrepancies in attitudes, whether by changing others to bring them closer to oneself cogbitiva by changing one’s own attitudes to bring them closer to others. They will likewise take action to reduce discrepancies in abilities, for which there is an upward drive to improve one’s abilities. Thus Festinger suggested that the “social influence processes and some kinds of competitive behavior are both manifestations of the same socio-psychological process In his paper, Festinger again systematically set forth df series of hypotheses, corollaries, and derivations, and he cited existing experimental evidence where available.

He stated his main set of hypotheses as follows:. Festinger and his collaborators, Henry Riecken and Stanley Schachter, examined conditions under which disconfirmation of beliefs leads to increased conviction in such beliefs in the book When Prophecy Fails. The group studied a small apocalyptic cult led by Dorothy Martin under the pseudonym Marian Keech in the booka suburban housewife.

The messages purportedly said that a flood would destroy the world on December 21, The three psychologists and several more assistants joined the group.

The team observed the group firsthand for months before and after the predicted apocalypse. Many of the group members quit their jobs and disposed of their possessions in preparation for the apocalypse. When doomsday came and went, Martin claimed that the world had been spared because of the “force of Good and light” [52] that the group members had spread throughout the world. Rather than abandoning their discredited beliefs, group members adhered to them even more strongly and began proselytizing with fervor.

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Festinger and his co-authors concluded that the following conditions lead to increased conviction in beliefs following disconfirmation:. Festinger also later described the increased conviction and proselytizing by cult members after disconfirmation as a specific instantiation of cognitive dissonance i. Festinger’s seminal work integrated existing research literature on influence and social communication under his theory of cognitive dissonance.

Among people who felt the shock but sustained no damage from the earthquake, rumors were widely circulated and accepted about even worse disasters to come. Although seemingly counter-intuitive that people would choose to believe “fear-provoking” rumors, Festinger reasoned that these rumors were actually “fear-justifying. Dissonance reduction can be achieved by changing cognition by changing actions [58]or selectively acquiring new information or opinions.

To use Festinger’s example of a smoker who has knowledge that smoking is bad for his health, the smoker may reduce dissonance pa choosing to quit smoking, by changing his thoughts about the effects of smoking e. Festinger and James M. Carlsmith published their classic cognitive dissonance experiment in Some subjects, who were led to believe that their participation in the experiment had concluded, were then asked to perform a favor for the experimenter by telling the next participant, who was actually a confederate, that the task was extremely enjoyable.

Dissonance fsetinger created for the subjects performing the favor, as the task was in fact boring. Social comparison theory and cognitive dissonance have been described by other psychologists as “the two most fruitful theories in social psychology. In addition, Festinger is credited with the ascendancy of laboratory experimentation in social psychology as one who “converted the experiment into a powerful scientific instrument with a central role in the search for knowledge.

Warning against the dangers of such demands when theoretical concepts are not yet fully developed, Festinger stated, “Research can increasingly address itself to fesstinger unclarities in prior research rather than to larger issues; festingrr can lose sight of the basic problems because the field becomes defined by the ongoing research. Perhaps one of the greatest impacts of Festinger’s studies cogmitiva in their “depict[ion] of social behavior as the responses of a thinking organism continually acting to bring order into his world, rather than as the blind impulses of a creature of emotion and habit,” as cited in his Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award.

Behaviorists focused only on the observable, i. For example, liking was simply a function of reward according to behaviorism, so greater reward would produce greater liking; Festinger and Carlsmith’s experiment clearly demonstrated greater liking with lower reward, a result that required the acknowledgement of cognitive processes.

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February 11, aged 69 New York City. Cognitive dissonance Effort justification Social comparison theory. Stanley Schachter Elliot Aronson. Wikiquote has quotations related to: