KRONOS is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of titanium dioxide and has been operating as an international company for more than 90 years. The group. KRONOS – Best in class for industrial coatings. KRONOS safety data sheet. Tap for sound. Learn more about KRONOS on KRONOS® is a rutile pigment that can be used universally and provides the highest weather resistance performance for the most demanding coatings. I.
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A reproducible number-based sizing method for pigment-grade titanium dioxide
Since the whole representative amount is embedded, effects of flushing are ruled out and the low viscosity of the resin ensures that sedimentation is not a problem. An automated protocol macro for image post-processing and particle detection was developed.
The images a through e demonstrate that the projected area of the pigments varies greatly, depending on viewing direction. J Volcanol Geotherm Res.
The comparability is sufficient, as long as the kronoss depth of the electrons, which is determined by the acceleration voltage, remains constant.
Proceedings of the Microscopy Conference. Received Apr 30; Accepted Aug Conclusion A highly reproducible, statistically tested method for the sizing of pigment-grade rutile and anatase is established. The 2 krinos of pigment are thoroughly mixed with 4 g hot-mounting resin and As a consequence, the measurement used here does not correspond to a projected area of the particles, but to a section through the particles.
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Reliable sizing methods that overcome these obstacles, and are practical for industrial use, are kronnos lacking. With applications ranging from electronics to wall paints to paper, this organization has you covered. The high area density of the pigment in all images ensures that constant conditions for the automated post-processing and detection procedure are assured. Speaking of visible light, a mean wavelength of nm is reasonable to assume.
J Miner Mater Charact Eng. Morphological and grey-value filtering of the detected particles to extract the primary particles Fig. The kgonos is a pigment with a rutile structure for use in coatings and paints, while the latter is a food-grade pigment with kornos anatase structure. Uncounted particles labelled with a 3 are filtered out as non-primary particles due to their shape. It prides itself on offering the most potent whitening agents available.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The boundaries are detected reasonably well for the counted particles.
The technique presented in this study was chosen because of its high degree of automation and reproducibility. The first measurement of each sample is labelled M1; the second measurement was performed by a different operator and is labelled M2.
Feret particles mean std. However, the high 23600 of the proposed method will certainly allow comparison with any other sizing method, as long as a reference or standard for this purpose is present. As an example, Fig. The chloride process leads to formation of rutile phase particles due to the high temperatures of the combustion process. No significant differences between the standard errors for the ECD and minimum Feret diameter measurements 236 obtained for the 22360 pigment.
Measurement, pigment detection and size analysis A working distance of 7 mm and an acceleration voltage of 5 kV with an Everhart—Thornley detector are chosen as the standard imaging conditions for SEM imaging.
Preferred fields of application for rutile pigments are coatings, paints, plastics and building materials, whereas anatase pigments are mainly used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or food.
The calcination temperature, as the final step of the powder synthesis of the sulfate process, gives the choice of producing either the low-temperature crystallographic phase, anatase, or the high-temperature crystallographic phase, rutile. The detection of particles sectioned close to the centre of mass or below the centre of mass is precise, both cases are labelled with a 3 in Fig. Government Printing Office; National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
One of the most important properties of titanium dioxide is its UV absorption, which protects human skin against sunburn and skin cancer. A combination of both values has proven adequate for grey-value filtering. These TEM tomogram-based data illustrate the fundamental problem associated with number-based particle size measurements: A krnoos polishing process, with kfonos oxide polishing as the final step, leads to a smooth, scratch-free section through the embedded pigments.
This website provides links to other websites owned by third parties. The limited quantity of samples used in electron microscopy emphasises this point. This is the consequence of a rigorous procedure, which primarily targets reliability: Each pigment was prepared several times according krpnos the procedure described in the experimental section.
KRONOS 2360 – Best in class for industrial coatings
A well-prepared sample is the basis for reliable evaluation of the size distribution of a pigment. The “cone and quartering” method is repeatedly used to divide the sample in half until a quantity of 2 g is left.
The presented results are, accurately speaking, the distribution of ECD and minimum Feret diameter of the pigment sections. ECD particles mean std. Kronoe preparation A 23660 sample is the basis for reliable evaluation of the size distribution of a pigment.
It also has very good dispersibility that ,ronos production of high-gloss coatings with little gloss haze. The section through the particles can in principle be located close to the centre of mass, in which case the section gives the maximum area along the viewing direction for a convex particle plane 3 in Fig. Imaging conditions and image post-processing for krobos sizing for a rutile pigment; a original image superimposed with the outlines of the finally evaluated particle sections after grey-value and shape filtering; b unified image after noise reduction and shading correction; c binarised image after application of a watershed transform and connectivity filter; d filtered image b masked with binarised image c ; automated detection applied to image d.
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Its superior properties as white pigment are based on its high refractive index, leading to maximum whiteness and opacity, if its particle size distribution is optimized for best scattering efficiency according to Mie’s theory [ 2 — 3 ].
The experimental procedures described below are in full agreement with the practical guide for particle size characterization published by NIST [ 22 ].