Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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That suspicion is idle; therefore in such a case that suspicion ought to be discredited and it [the text] should not be made an object of allegorical interpretation, as has happened in so many contexts as I have shown you in this book at the hands of the theologians, i. The fourth [class] occurs where the premisses are based on accepted ideas or opinions, without being accidentally certain, and where the conclusions are symbols for what it was intended to conclude. The position clearly is that this matter belongs to the class [3] about which there is disagreement.


And the should accept from them gladly and gratefully whatever in these books accords with the truth, and draw attention to and warn against what does not accord kitwb the truth, at the same time excusing them. Thus the difficulty is resolved, and we do no, have to admit that if there occurs no change, i.

Cynthia Goldstein for typing the greater portion of my manuscript, and my wife for her encouraging interest which has sustained my effort. Such texts must be interpreted allegorically by everyone. For it is not stated in Scripture that God was existing with absolutely nothing else: Then how can he do it with the art of arts, philosophy? But all references are to the editio princeps of M. la-maqal

If all these things were in the Knowledge of God the Glorious before they existed, are they in their state of existence [the same] in His Knowledge as they were before their existence, or are they in their state of existence other in Al-maqak Knowledge than they were before they existed?

For death from water by choking is an accidental matter, but death by thirst is essential and necessary.

Thus whoever tampers with them, by making an allegorical interpretation not apparent in itself, or [at least] not more apparent to alm-aqal than they are and that [greater apparency] is something non-existentis rejecting their wisdom and rejecting their intended effects in procuring human happiness. This is what happened to the Sufis and to those scholars who followed this path: Afsl it conflicts there is a call for allegorical interpretation of it.


It has also been injured by a host of ignorant friends who claim an affinity with it: The reason for that [in the case of the latter] is that allegorical interpretation comprises two things, rejection of the apparent meaning and affirmation of the allegorical one; so that if the apparent meaning is rejected al-maqql the mind of someone who can only grasp apparent meanings, without the allegorical meaning being affirmed in his mind, the result is unbelief, if it [the text in question] concerns the principles of religion.

For our soul is in the utmost sorrow and pain by reason of the evil fancies and perverted beliefs fals have infiltrated this religion, and particularly such [afflictions] as have happened al-mqal it at the hands al-maqak people who claim an affinity with philosophy.

For demonstration compels the conclusion that He knows things, al-maaql their issuing from Him is solely due to His knowing; it is not due to His being merely Existent or Existent with a certain attribute, but to His knowing, as the Exalted has kitan Just as no change occurs in an agent when his act comes into being, i.

The third is the reverse of this: Therefore there must not occur any change such as occurs in originated knowledge. Advanced Search Find a Library. Luzac for the Trustees of ‘The E. I AM grateful to the International Commission for the Translation of Great Works and the Trustees of the Gibb Memorial Fund for sponsoring the publication of this book, and to the Graduate School of the University of Michigan for financial assistance towards research.

These judges are the scholars, specially chosen by God for [the task of] allegorical interpretation, and this error which is forgivable according to the Law is only such error as proceeds from scholars when they study the difficult matters which the Law obliges them to study.

For this to happen, opinions must be divergent in the extreme, i. Indeed this comparison is certain, not poetic as one might suppose.

In memory of my father

But it is now clear from what we have aal-maqal that this is not the case. But to establish it with certainty with regard to theoretical texts is impossible, because there have always been scholars who would not divulge their interpretation sl-maqal such texts.

It is also possible to release the allegorical interpretation to them, because of the strong resemblance between the thing mentioned and what it symbolizes. Ak-maqal nd if someone errs or stumbles in the study of these books owing to a deficiency in his natural capacity, or bad organization of his study of them, or being dominated by his passions, or not finding a teacher to guide him to an understanding of their contents, or a combination of all or more than one of these causes, 48 it does not follow that one should forbid them to anyone who is qualified to study them.


On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy – Wikipedia

For the first believers arrived at perfect virtue and fear of God only by using these sayings [of Scripture] without interpreting them allegorically; and anyone of them who did find out an ffasl interpretation did not kitqb fit to express it [to others]. However, when allegorical interpretations of these two classes [of texts] [iii and iv] are declared openly, they give birth to strange beliefs, remote from the apparent meaning of Scripture; and sometimes these become widespread, until they are denied by the masses.

No, he will be unable to use those [things] with them, nor will they use them, and so they will all perish. True science is knowledge of God, Blessed and Exalted, and the other beings as they really are, and especially of noble beings, and knowledge of happiness and misery in the next life. The rule in this regard is that which was followed by Abu Hamid in The book of the distinction: Home About Help Search.

Refine Your Search Year. Thus the theologians too in their statements about the world do not conform to the apparent meaning of Scripture but interpret it allegorically.

Ibn Rushd: Fasl al-maqal (Arabic Books: alkutub – مكتبة الكتب العربية)

The true allegory is the deposit which man was charged to hold and which he held, and from which all beings shied away, i. In sum, it can hardly be conceived that the knowledge of a thing before it exists can be identical with the knowledge of it after it exists.

But this [argument] is not correct. But both alternatives are impossible for God the Glorious. The precious Book has told us to seek it by acts conformable to the Law, in several verses.