This study attempts to give as complete as possible a description of two extinct Saivite sects-the Kapalikas and the Kalamukhas. Since the connotations of the. Kapalika and Kalamukha, members of either of two groups of Shaivite (devotees of Shiva) ascetics, most prominent in India from the 8th through the 13th century. Kapalikas, Kalamukhas. Identifier TheKapalikasAndKalamukhasTwoLostSaiviteSectsDLorenzenDelhi Identifier-ark ark://t23b9rp

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Kapalika – Wikipedia

Ill; and R. In case of contact with Kapalikas, restraint of the breath prdndyama is also kalamukjas. Other Hindus, Shaivites in particular, were enraged by such practices.

The half verse in praise of Kapalisvara, written in corrupt Sanskrit, shows that the god had special powers over disfiguring diseases: However, their tantric connection has yet to be proven. A great flood of blood kalamukhs out and spreads over fifty yojanas. Human sacrifice existed in India, as in most parts of the ancient world, from a very early date. When Jayanta complained that he was too ex- hausted from travelling to start on the great journey back to Kashmir, Asvapada said: Internet URLs are the best.

This is particularly true of the Jains, whose extreme asceticism made them natural enemies of tantricism.

Brown, Hermes the Thief. We have noted that the Vdmana Purdna seems to mention MahapaSupata as the form of Siva who incarnated himself as Bharadvaja for the propagation of the PaSupata doctrine, but that elsewhere it mentions Saivas, PaSu- 26Ed. His virtuous wife, who had followed him to the market, rushed forward ahead of him and sold herself as a domestic slave to a Brahman teacher.

The Pdrsvandtha-carita, composed by Vadiraja in a. Most of the other dramatists lived in northern and western India. The spelling of Indian place names is always a problem. He drinks from it and offers the remainder to his new disciples act II 1vs.


With the Kapalikas I have first presented these source materials in as readable a form as possible and saved most of my analysis of them for a separate chapter.

I control the gods headed by Hari, Hara and the Eldest of gods Brahma. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. This statement is based kaalikas the absence of any mention of the kapaliks in a record dated in this year ed.

Thinking that his own ambition was as good as achieved, Ugra- Bhairava approached Saipkara and greeted him with fulsome praise. The ultimate aim of the Kapalika observance was a mystical identification or communion with Siva. It seems to have ended with some sort of riot in which the Ajivikas were expelled.

Of greatest importance is the identification and des- cription of the peculiar vow of the Kapalikas called the Mahavrata. Gunaratna and the Bdrhaspati-sutra claim that the Kapalikas are sybaritic Nastika materialists anr to wine, meat and illicit intercourse.

Our doctrine is beyond all worldly ties avadhuta.

This is how Tawney renders this strange term. Elsewhere, again, young courtiers kalamumhas openly resorting to the sale of human flesh. I ; and Kurma Purdna. There is also some evidence that they occasionally practised various forms of self-mutilation such as cutting flesh from their own bodies for sacrificial oblations. This version reads “Kapalika vow’ in place of “Kapala vow’ and “ashes and pieces of bone’ in place of “hair and pieces of bone.

This is, no doubt, an oversimplification, but each may well kalanukhas propounded a dualistic metaphysics.

In yet another story iii. Externally this usually takes the form of human or animal sacrifice. The Vama, Pasupata, Soma, Lahgala, and Bhairava sdstras are declared to be outside the Vedas and are not to be kapalijas. The religious activity of the Kapalikas was centered around bhakti, or devotion to a personal god, which is usually identified by this group as Bhairava, Shiva in his terrifying form. Nonetheless it is best to place Akalahka in this period. Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.


Consequently, the date of Vimalacandra is uncertain. Before discussing these supernatural benefits, however, we must examine the central ritual of tantric communion, sexual intercourse.

They revel in the misfortunes of the world lapalikas bear hostility against honoured men. When the Ksapanaka fiercely repudiates this grim dharma, Soma- siddhanta castigates him in return act III, vs. It is doubtful, however, whether kalamukhss of the three groups had its own exclusive laity.

In this particularly obscene song, Kanhapada describes the apparent rape and murder of a dombi or a woman of low castewhich is possibly an allegorical description of an internal yogic process and an external tantric ritual under the guise of this ribald poem.

The Kapalikas And Kalamukhas Two Lost Saivite Sects D Lorenzen Delhi 1991

The translations of this are our own. Be it known to you that. Meanwhile the KApalika returned with a Vetala who carried the treasure of magical quicksilver on his shoulder. Hedonistically, the first four of the five Ma-sounds —wine, meat, fish, and grain mudrdj—are regarded as aphrodisiac uttejaka preparatives to the final maithuna or sexual union between the initiated adept and his lapalikas partner.

Financial support for my studies has been provided by my parents, my wife, the American Institute of Indian Studies—which contri- buted an invaluable year in India— and the Australian National University. Since this theory is well-known92 we need only note here its association with the Kapalikas. He held a trident and uttered loud and dreadful laughter.