30 Books and Letters by Jabir ben Hayan’ – A book on thirty messages in chemistry, astronomy, nature, philosophy, logic, and other topics, from Jabir Ibn Hayyan. In this book, which I managed to compile in a short time, the culture and science of Jaber ibn Hayyan founded the first Islamic school of thought in chemistry. His school Ottoman court and Urdu literature by the Mongolian court. The. We are going to start a series of information in Urdu and in English for Great Muslims Click Here for Detail about Jabir ibn Hayyan in Englsih.

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Inthe historian Ahmad Y. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Jabir states in his Book of Stones 4: Whatever their origin, they became the principal authorities in early Western alchemy and held that position for two or three centuries.

A short history of the art of distillation: Retrieved 11 February Wikiquote has quotations related to: This view becomes widespread. Thus, Jabir theorized, by rearranging the qualities of one metal, a different metal would result.

Jabir ibn Hayyan – Wikipedia

The 14th century critic of Arabic literature, Jamal al-Din ibn Nubata al-Misri declares all the writings attributed to Jabir doubtful. His works seem to have been deliberately written in highly esoteric code see steganographyso that only those who had been initiated into his alchemical school could understand them. Critical Issues in Latin and Arabic Alchemy and Chemistrypublished as book by Olms in and as article by Centaurus journal in According to Jabir’s mercury-sulfur theorymetals differ from each in so far as they contain different proportions of the sulfur and mercury.


He invented an additive which, when applied to an iron surface, inhibited rust and when applied to a textile, would make it water repellent.

Retrieved 11 June He was eventually caught by the Umayyads and executed.

His family fled to Yemen, [18] [20] perhaps to some of their relatives in the Azd tribe, [21] where Jabir grew up and studied the Quran, mathematics and other subjects. Another group, reported by al-Nadim, says only The Large Book of Mercy is genuine and that the rest are urd.

The historian Paul Kraus, who had studied most of Jabir’s extant works in Arabic and Latin, summarized the importance of Jabir to the history of chemistry by comparing his experimental and systematic works in chemistry with that of the allegorical and unintelligible works of the ancient Greek alchemists.

Inventions of Jābir ibn Hayyān in Urdu and English ~ Online Academy

Iran and Philosophy”, Translated by Joseph H. Heinrichs, Brill, However, by Bioks when he Holmyard wrote Alchemy. Holmyard says that Jabir proves by experiment that these are not ordinary sulfur and mercury. These books were heavily influenced by Arabic books written by Jabir, the “real” Geber, and by Al Razi and others. Dutton ; Also Paris, P. Geber seems to have been a client jaibr the Azd tribe established in Kufa. Kitab al-Kimya Kitab al-Sab’een Picatrix. In metals two of these qualities were interior and two were exterior.

Retrieved 26 June His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end. They are available in Latin only, date from about the yearand their author is identified as “Geber” or pseudo-Geber:. Although they reflect earlier Arabic alchemy they are not direct translations of “Jabir” but are the work of a 13th-century Latin alchemist. Jabir’s alchemical investigations were theoretically grounded jagir an elaborate numerology related to Pythagorean and Neoplatonic systems.


According to Forbes, there is no proof that Jabir knew alcohol.

Their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim. Archived from the original PDF on 7 October Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B.

Jabir ibn Hayyan

He has been described as “the father of early chemistry”. Retrieved 14 June Jabir professed to have drawn his alchemical inspiration from earlier writers, both legendary and historic, on the subject. He began his career practicing medicine, under the patronage of a Vizir from the noble Persian family Barmakids of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Imamology in Ismaili Gnosis.

Harbi al-Himyari Ja’far al-Sadiq. The general impression they convey is that they are the product of an occidental rather than an oriental mind, and a likely guess would be that they were written by a European scholar, possibly in Moorish Spain. A problem which historians of chemistry have not yet succeeded in solving is whether these works are genuine or not. The development of modern chemistry. Meri ; Jere L. Names, Natures and Things: By Jabir’s time Aristotelian physics had become Neoplatonic.

Jabir in the classical sources has been variously attributed as al-Azdial-Kufial-Tusial-Sufial-Tartusi or al-Tarsusiand al-Harrani. Dent,p.

Views Read Edit View history. Several technical Arabic terms introduced by Jabir, such as alkalihave found their way into various European languages and have become part of scientific vocabulary. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.