Religious Symbolism and the Ideological. Critique in “El perseguidor” by Julio Cort?zar. El sentido esencial de este cuento existe en funci?n de un sistema de. In , the Argentine writer Julio Cortázar published a short story entitled “El Perseguidor” (“The Pursuer”) that vividly brought to life the bebop scene of s . This study aims to juxtapose two treatments of „time‟ in Julio Cortázar‟s short story, El perseguidor, to better understand how the concept challenges the.

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Berkeley and Los Angeles: Johnny is emaciated, or extremely thin from illness, but his temperature is normal, and corazar talks to Bruno about his visions of fields with urns that contain the ashes of dead people, as well as his conviction that the doctors and scientists that are so sure of themselves do not understand the world at perseguidog. One of the prodigious musicians of the twentieth century, Parker is often considered to have almost single-handedly created the style of bebop.

The Pursuer |

Pepe is the musician who talks with Art and Delaunay about Lester Youngthe alto saxophonist that was Charlie Parker’s hero when he was growing up, in the hotel after Johnny learns that his daughter died. ByFrance had finally lost a costly war in colonial Indochina, and in a rebellion in Algeria by a combination of colonials and militarists effectively toppled the French government, resulting in Charles de Gaulle being called back to power as president of France.

In one part of the story, Bruno refers to the group of musicians and their friends who congregate around Johnny as “sick angles, irritating in their irresponsibility, but ultimately valuable to the community. Then Johnny falls asleep and Bruno observes that Johnny is not a genius “walk[ing] in the clouds,” but a man more real than anyone else. One important new style that flowered in the s and s and was particularly Latin American in origin was “magical realism,” or a fusion of fantasy and myth with realistic fiction.

Two or three days later, Bruno visits Tica, or “the marquesa,” a rich friend and sometime lover of Johnny, to find out if she has been giving him heroin, or “junk. Johnny is recovering from another bout of heavy drinking and drug use, he has once again lost his sax, and he is in a bad mood. Davis was, together with Parker, one of the most influential jazz musicians of the bebop era. Why’ve you made me accept [your God] in your book?

The Pursuer

Musicians such as Louis Armstrong soon became extremely popular with both white and black audiences, and by the time the “big band” era peaked in the s, jazz was the mainstream music of the United States. Without knowing it, and not like he was making great speeches from the gallows or writing books denouncing the evils of mankind or playing the piano with the air of someone washing away the sins of the world.


But Johnny is also a unique genius whose understanding of life and psychological problems are inextricably connected to his philosophical and artistic insights. In the years following World War IIFrench critical cortqzar such as the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan were publishing their most influential theories, and the literary and cultural elite cortaazar rapidly moving away from the standards persegukdor modernism.

The capitalist individual moves according to the clock and due dates, as in the case of Bruno, the jazz critic writing for the newspaper.

It is involved in the very process of writing. The right answer simply can’t be explained. By then I was fully aware of the dangerous perfection persegujdor the storyteller who reaches a certain level of achievement and stays on that same level forever, without moving on, I was a bit sick and tired of seeing how well my stories turned out.

It is a problem that every writer who works with true characters, with the crazily unpredictable winds and sparks of real life, should have. Juljo has abandoned his wife, children, and an unknown number of other persegudior, he continually loses or sells his saxophone, he fails to come to performances or refuses to play while there, he has a tendency to be suicidal, and it is sometimes necessary to confine him to a psychiatric hospital because he is a danger to himself or other people.

And such process takes place in a collective dialogue, while maintaining and ensuring the originality of each individual. According to this metaphor, Bruno’s biography of Johnny may be regarded as a biblical text, describing the religious message he derives from Perseguidot music. But, he adds, Bruno’s book is missing something. Learn more about citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia.

Bruno ultimately comes to regard Johnny as a Christ-like figure, whose music offers a form of spiritual transcendence to his listeners, while his self-destructive behaviors represent a Christ-like form of suffering for the sins of others. He tells Bruno, “I don’t want your God, he’s never been mine. So he turns to Bruno, whose art is working with words, for help.

Bruno is like Johnny’s lovers, friends, and fellow musicians who exploit Johnny for their own devices, since Bruno’s book and much of his career is founded on Johnny’s genius.

In “The Pursuer’ I wanted to stop inventing and stand on my own ground, to look at myself a bit. Also, Bruno is one of the people who is always taking care of Johnny and giving him what he needs.

For Johnny, such an idea of time is challenging, and is referred to by Bruno as one of his ‘manias’ In he took a post teaching French literature at the University of Cuyo in Mendoza.


After everyone else leaves, Johnny and Bruno walk to the Seine River, and Bruno asks him about his biography, which has just been translated from French into English.

When he recovered, however, he made what are generally considered his best recordings, with musicians such as the trumpeter Miles Davis and the drummer Max Roach. El primero, el dos, el tres, el veintiuno.

Johnny is ahead of his time, struggling to reach a new level of existence, and normal society, including his biographer Bruno, is ultimately unable to accept or understand him. While Johnny is described variously as an angel, devil, or god, Bruno also describes Johnny’s followers as angels of a sort. Other critics, such as Doris Sommer in her essay “Pursuing a Perfect Present,” discuss the relationship of the critic and the artist as it relates to the story’s innovations in narrative structure: His biography focused on Johnny’s music, he tells himself, and not on the failings of the man himself, his lunacy, his addictions, his promiscuity, his ridiculousness.

Throughout “The Pursuer,” Bruno makes frequent reference to both angels and devils in describing Johnny and his music. Later, Johnny refers to the “holes” in his hands, an image which evokes the stigmata of Christ, whose hands were nailed to the cross. Johnny thus mocks Bruno’s representation of his music as a religious phenomenon. The most pronounced of Johnny’s obsessions is time, which confounds him because he sees that it is not a linear or collective phenomenon.

Instead of mainstream dance music played in ballrooms and large restaurants, bebop music became associated with smoky nightclubs and musicians that ignored their audiences. Indeed, one of the most important “pursuers” is the reader of the story, hunting through the text in order to discover its meaning.

In explaining his childhood to Bruno, he equates both his parents’ fights over money specifically, over their home mortgage with the religion they imposed upon him as aspects of his childhood that he found unbearable.

Yet Peresguidor seems to be the only person aware that he is doing this, and Bruno also as becomes clear while he is listening to Amorous understands Johnny’s music, as well as his obsessions and philosophies, better than any of the other characters.

Bruno has made his name with a book on Johnny Carter, a brilliant alto saxophonist closely modeled on Charlie “Bird” Parker.