Although cocophilus is undeniably close to other species in the genus Bursaphelenchus (and may well prove to belong to that genus), there remains some. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus. Red Ring Nematode. Synonym: Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. Rhadinaphelenchus was designated a junior. The red ring nematode, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, was first described by Cobb. () as Aphelenchus cocophilus from specimens in.
|Published (Last):||26 June 2006|
|PDF File Size:||10.23 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||7.32 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
In longitudinal section, the reddened tissue may appear as two united bands joined in the bole forming a U-shape or full circle. Nematodes are carried on body surface and also enter body through spiracles and mouth. There is apparently a phytotoxin in the red ring.
In a cross-section of the stem, they appear as an orange to brick-red coloured ring, cm wide, and at a distance of cm from the periphery. A crosswise cut through the trunk of an infected palm one to seven feet above the soil line usually will reveal a circular, colored band approximately 3 to 5 cm wide, variable with the size of the tree. Lip region smooth, high, anteriorly flattened with rather straight sides, slightly narrower than body; head frame-work prominent, sclerotized.
About weeks after cocohilus first appear the crown often topples over from the internal damage caused by the palm weevil larvae; but, the trunk remains standing in the field for several months until it decays. Generally, the leaves become dried and brown, beginning at the tips of the leaflets and progressing downwards.
Epidemiology Red ring disease in new groves generally begins by infection of a year old palm by the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarumcarrying R. There are two pairs of distinct ventro-submedian papillae near base of bursa and a pre-anal pair, about 0. The role of the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarumas cocophikus vector of red ring disease of coconuts.
Bursaphelenchus cocophilus pest information
Transmission to leaf axils occurs as beetle feeds. Inside the tree, the red ring nematodes eat, grow and reproduce. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
This diseased tree, however, forms a source of inoculum as it becomes chemically attractive to all palm weevils including potential vectors. The most common color of the band is bright red, although the shade can vary from light pink or cream to dark brown in infected African oil palms.
Vincent, Surinam, Tobago, Trinidad and Venezuela. Paired spicule s with prominent disc expansions at cocoohilus end. In coconut tissues, R. Those nematodes are then left behind at the next palm, usually transmitted as the weevil lays its eggs. Red ring nematodes bursaphepenchus both palm tissue and roots. Red ring disease of coconut palm.
Leaving the stump behind can lead to vector reproduction and spread the nematode. In coconut and the palmiste palms the nematodes are most active in the stem tissue except in the very necrotic regions. Bursaphelenchus hylobianum Bursaphelenchus kevini Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis Kanzaki, et al.
These symptoms differ somewhat in the dwarf bureaphelenchus ‘nana’ and also some panama talls. The palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarumis the vector of the nematode and life stages of R.
Distribution Bursalhelenchus Top of page You can pan and zoom the map. Red ring nematodes are typically slender and about 1 mm long. Occasionally, a palm as young as 1. Red ring disease of coco-nuts. Articles with ‘species’ microformats. Adult weevils emerging from trees infected with R. Tails of second- and third-stage larvae have conoid or sharply mucronate tips, and those of fourth-stage larvae have dimorphic tips: However, the trunk remains standing in the field for several months until it decays.
References Top of page Alcocer GL, University of California, Davis, Department of Nematology. When the weevil eggs hatch, immature nematodes associate with the larvae and can remain inside them as the weevils undergo metamorphosis. Species involved bursapheelenchus bark beetlesweevilsflat-faced longhorn beetles such as sawyer beetlesand soil-nesting bees.
Texas Invasive Species Institute
In coconut palms, red ring nematodes most often attack trees between three and seven years old. The following modification was devised by Schuilling and Van Dinther The palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum acts as the primary vector for red ring nematode, Bursaphelenchus cocophiluswhich causes red ring disease in coconut and oil palms.
References Text References Esser, R. In the leaves, a solid core of mottled tissue, dull red to brown in colour, extends from the leaf-base up to 75 cm in the petioles. Vulva slit-like appearing as an open C in ventral view, slightly over-hung by a wide, thick dorsal lip; posterior lip is also thick and heavily sclerotized. Fenwick DW, Maharaj S, The symptoms described are those for palms of the tall cultivar of coconuts or ‘typica’ which grow in the West Indian islands.
Palm tree affected by red ring disease. Bursaphelenchus contains a single described hermaphroditic species, okinawaensisand over described gonochoristic species.
Anterior gonad well developed, outstretched; oocytes in a row. These trees often stop producing fruit.
The meristematic tissue in the bud remains white and apparently healthy. Lesions at the upper end of the stem in the vicinity of the crown are discrete, appearing first as streaks and then as dots.
European and Mediterranean Cocopihlus Protection Organization. There is no record of any tree, once affected, having recovered. Coconuts are especially susceptible for 2 years before and after start of fruit bearing.