HACEK Infections – Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals – Medical Professional Version. The “HACEK” organisms are a group of fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that cause a variety of infections, including infective endocarditis. Antimicrobial. Hacek. 1. Dr Vishal Kulkarni MBBS MD (Microbiology); 2. The acronym HACEK refers to a group of fastidious slow growing bacteria.

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All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and levofloxacin, indicating that these agents remain appropriate empirical choices for the treatment of infections with this group of organisms.

Neurology Chapter related topics Botulism Tetanus. The HACEK organisms are a group of fastidious gram-negative bacteria that are an unusual cause of infective endocarditiswhich is an inflammation of the heart due to bacterial infection. Of the remaining 20 isolates, one Eikenella isolate was resistant to ampicillin and penicillin.

Endocarditis infective endocarditis Subacute bacterial endocarditis non-infective endocarditis Libman—Sacks endocarditis Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Search Bing for all related images. Epidemiology Group A Streptococcus results in million infections and complicated bydeaths each year worldwide Carapetis Lancet Infect Dis 5 The penicillin with the greatest in vitro activity was amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

Determination of the antimicrobial activity of 29 clinically important compounds tested against fastidious HACEK group organisms. Ampicillin a penicillincombined with low-dose gentamicin an aminoglycoside is another therapeutic option. Pediatrics Chapter related topics Infant Botulism. Corruption bactegias, perception and anti-corruption trust: Rickettsia typhi Murine typhus Rickettsia prowazekii Epidemic typhusBrill—Zinsser diseaseFlying squirrel typhus.

HACEK organisms – Wikipedia

These organisms are normal flora of the human oral cavity, but are capable of causing disease, most notably infective endocarditis IEbut also periodontal infections, abscesses, and nonendocarditis bacteremia secondary to focal infections.


It can ferment salicin, rhamnose, and trehalose but not sorbitol, or ribose. The bacteria were originally grouped because they were thought to be a significant cause of infective endocarditisbut recent literature has shown that they are rare and only responsible for 1.

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A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans.

Although access to this page is not restricted, the information found here is intended for use by medical providers. Culture negative refers to an inability to produce a colony on regular agar plates; this is because these bacteria are fastidious requiring a specific nutrient.

You are currently viewing the original ‘fpnotebook. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute An approach to a patient with infective endocarditis.

Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Clinical Isolates of HACEK Organisms

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas infection Moraxella catarrhalis Acinetobacter baumannii. If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Footnotes Published ahead of print 12 February Myocarditis Chagas disease Cardiomyopathy Dilated Alcoholic Hypertrophic Restrictive Loeffler endocarditis Cardiac amyloidosis Endocardial fibroelastosis Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.

Accelerated idioventricular rhythm Catecholaminergic polymorphic Torsades de pointes. Address correspondence to Samir N.

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. The high failure rate for susceptibility results among these organisms also indicates that current recommended susceptibility methods may not be optimal.

Methods for antimicrobial dilution and disk susceptibility testing bacteria infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria. Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis new version Jamiesona, d David J.

Vibrio cholerae Cholera Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio alginolyticus Plesiomonas shigelloides.

Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter previously Actinobacillus species, Cardiobacterium hominus, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species. HACEK originally referred to H aemophilus parainfluenzaeH aemophilus aphrophilusA ctinobacillus actinomycetemcomitansC ardiobacterium hominisE ikenella corrodensand Bacteriaw ingella kingae.


Bacteriaas is based on limited data due to the clinical rarity of infections by these organisms. Epidemiology Group A Streptococcus results in million infections and complicated bydeaths each year worldwide Carapetis Lancet Infect Dis 5 All of these organisms are part of the normal oropharyngeal flora, which grow slowly up to 14 daysprefer a carbon dioxide—enriched atmosphere, and share an enhanced capacity to produce endocardial infections, especially in young children.

Streptococco del gruppo A bxcterias, Streptococcus pyogenes. Resistance to imipenem, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ampicillin, and tetracycline was also observed.

Acid Fast Bacteria Mycobacteria Leprosy. Please review our privacy policy. Sinus bradycardia Sick sinus syndrome Heart block: Meropenem was more active and more potent than imipenem. Open in a separate window. Definition CSP species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, gruppo the upper respiratory tract of humans; it is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause scarlet fever and rheumatic fever; virulent strains penetrate deep into the body, with catastrophic results; it has been demonstrated that invasive streptococcus Jacek infections can trigger a toxic shock syndrome, myositis, or destroy the sheath that covers the muscle, necrotizing fasciitis.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. A species of facultatively anaerobic, Gram positive, cocci shaped bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes. Hacek – definition of hacek by The Free Dictionary https: Streptococcus Gruppe AStreptococcus pyogenes. From Wikipedia, the bactetias encyclopedia.

Rheumatology Chapter related topics Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis. This species is beta hemolytic, Lancefield group A, pyrrolidonylarylamidase, and arginine deaminase positive and catalase negative.

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