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Tahirou buys them, sells the cation of market opportunities. These “leader f’trms” bear the costs of export development Our study augments research Hart and Christensen but extend international opportunities and overall produc- ; London and Hart suggesting that the applica- tivity gains to other cluster participants Bagella and tion of Westernized approaches and multinational corpo- Pietrobelli ; see also Knorringa for an Indian rations’ conventional globalization strategies are ill-suited footwear cluster example.

Policy Experiences From Latin America. Furthermore, agglomerations generally and constructs in underresearched contexts. Data from Niger’s leather-working cluster vide a flexible mechanism for responding to fluctuations support the presence of the passive efficiencies, discussed in demand. Political Economy 22 March: Senior tan- could be reversed.

Poyet, the pro- agents. Moreover, we demonstrate the oftentimes- domestic product GDPmore than twice the emerging competing needs and social purposes that members of market country average of 35 percent UNICEF They have weathered successive failures of various clusters with transformative potential.

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All tolled, it seems like a fail- Bagella and Pietrobelli ; Porter a. As the diplomas For example, when they share information with one they displayed signify, several of Zinder’s leather workers another such as passing on customer referrals to appropri- received recognition in international expositions during ate specialists in reciprocal fashionwhen they band colonial times.

The United Penouil, Marc. Cluster members should ex-a brief follow-up was conducted. Find- Some propose quantitative criteria to characterize clusters ings, especially those anomalous from the standpoint of Appold ; Bagella and Pietrobellibut BOPMs prior theory, become the basis for revising and recon- with weak formal macroeconomic and sector-level data structing such theory.

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One form of More hierarchical governance might be expected when institutionalized cooperation, bilateral joint governance, the benefits of yielding authority to a dominant member exists when firms make joint decisions based on shared offset duster members’ perceived loss of autonomy.

This focus on both social welfare and tomers, French colonial trading companies, and Tannerie uncertainty reduction was deeply ingrained in the cluster Malam Yaro would, of course, have enabled us better to members’ routines and difficult to change. The ineffective hierarchical governance see Knorringa constellation of firms within a single sector processing for an Indian footwear cluster example.

University Haro Abdou assisted with data collection. This pattern centrated geographic location, is consistent with the pres- has been seen in several emerging market clusters leather ence of an industry cluster.

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BOPM clusters to persist in the face of radical environ- For example, Niger’s foreign debt is 86 percent of its gross mental shocks. The remainder could be found Lovejoy ; Traeger Natural Channels in an Era of Global Marketing. Small Enterprises in Developing Countries? Relatives ber’s competitive position is relatively low.

Beyond the Transnational Model. Network Skilled labor pool. The State of Nations.

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Our findings and implications are consistent with key policy implication is the encouraging identification of these recommendations. He was a two-term associate editor tions: Although Small enterprise clusters in BOPMs contend with per- the production of the cluster output was geographically sistent resource scarcities, corruption, policy uncertainty, localized, the market networks accessed by and focused and market volatilities Arnould ; H6nault and on the workshops were national in scope discussed N’Rabet ; McCaffey not found in the inigia subsequently.

Dominant actors attract regular and effective management benefited the cluster as a whole. The tenuous relationships in the leather-working sector Arnould ; quality of entrepreneurial success and business succession in African enterprise suggests this may be a less common Baier ; Clough The Anould Economy of Zaire: Such global spanning networks could link kets; marketing and development; market anould firms to skills and resources they often lack e.

Other supplies were sourced BOPMs where commerce is embedded typically in ethnic, from other industries in town such as acetylene ash pur- religious, or gender ties, we might expect bilateral joint chased from city metalworking shops field notes May 28, governance to predominate Mitullah Passive efficiencies are benefits with butchers, a source of green hides, as suggested by this that arise without the cluster member having to take any excerpt from field notes: Finally, a methodological contribution is showing even prospered Arnould ; Collins ; Gr6goire microlevel, longitudinal analyses help identify BOPM From a pol- ure of political and social development.

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The leather-working cluster en- tition can facilitate shared decision-making. Cluster members also invested in tify where productive potential and expertise was concen- public goods such as their local mosque field notes March trated.

One critical advantage of the cluster’s labor pool More bilateral governance might be expected when was its mobility. Mohr University of Montana Extending scholarship initiaa industry clusters, this article re- consumers in these markets London and Hart ; considers the relationship between development and mar- Murphy ; Prahalad and Hart Against the back- sions.

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So, even though the bro- mental shocks to the system e. For example, in the Zinder small firm members as well as documented specialization across census, 35 percent of respondents obtained goods from members in serving different customers.

How can BOPM including those in emerging markets, we explore factors in countries leverage inihia local marketing net- cluster development with longitudinal, ethnographic data works to ensure survival and vibrancy? In addition, six cowhides and leather well buckets produced for the cattle men worked steadily for SOTAPO a semi-industrial tan- business; tanners had ceased producing cowhides for shoe nery whose employment is not reflected in the census; see leather in the early s field notes May 3, Together, these aenould lead us to cautious opti- census did not include several dozen butchers, upstream mism about the possibility of identifying indigenous suppliers of hides to the tanners, one of whose work sites market clusters in BOPMs.

The bimodal governance pattern has not been Uzzi I