Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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Similarly, although individual nations and statesmen have a great and sometimes spec- tacular impact on the course of events, international “relations” in the literal sense require foremost attention. Refresh and try again. Essays on Discodd Politics by Arnold Wolfers. Often the underlying propositions and principles are only dimly perceived by the actor; they are part of his intellectual heritage and environment. Paperbackpages. If, on the other hand, one sees only the mass of individual human beings of whom mankind is composed, the power game of states tends to appear as an inhuman interference with the lives of ordinary people.

It would be disastrous if they sought instead to build on the quicksands of emotion, especially today when emotions are at the mercy of mass media of communication and of high-powered propaganda. BookDB marked it as to-read Sep 13, A collaboratipn discussion of the actors is not the place to answer the question whether nonstate corporate actors are presently gain- ing or losing ground in their competition with the nation-state. Whether the United Nations has become a center of decision and action in its own right is a quaestio collaboratiin, as it is in the case of all the ddiscord of the nation-state.

The goals of national independence, territorial integrity, and national survival which figure so large in the foreign policy of all nation-states are not uniform in scope or character and must, therefore, be treated as significant variables.

Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. Whether a state has a “vital interest” in access to the sea or in the return of a lost province, for example depends on the relative values attached by its citizens to these national objectives, on the one hand, and to private interests which would be sacrificed in collaboratioj pursuit of the national objectives, on the other.

As a result the actor’s choice among alternative courses of action, experienced by him as a matter of discoord responsibility, wo,fers merged with the determinants external to him.


To the extent to which these traits are shared and have a decisive effect on the actions or reactions of statesmen and peoples, they create conformity as if by a kind of inner compulsion. It was the aim of the new theories to replace the abstract notion of the state with the living realities of human minds, wills, and hearts.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics. (Book, ) []

Then again, the importance of aim or purpose may be illustrated by a question that has led to much controversy. Here for once the analogy with the behavior and interests of individuals should not be misleading. In the first place, they are unable to subject their “patients” to direct laboratory tests or controlled experiments, which have On Theory and Practice xv contributed more than any other single factor to scientific progress.

If he has any capacity for dis- passionate self-analysis he can find out a great deal about what under given conditions would be likely to induce a man to collabo- rate or to withdraw into isolation, to make concessions or to wolfefs to force, to seek to gain more power or to be complacent about the position he holds. They may not succeed, however, in eliciting such a response if one or more of these other nations is hostile to the very idea of nonalign- ment or neutrality.

Such a devel- opment will indicate not that individuals wolfrs suddenly taking over the function formerly performed by states, but rather that larger bodies of individuals are sharing the role once reserved to the members of small elites who formerly decided what the “national interest” demanded or justified. In the case of Europe prior to the establishment of NATO, the question was whether what was needed most was higher productivity as a means of increasing defensive strength or conversely whether more defensive strength providing a greater sense of security was not a prerequisite of greater efforts toward higher productivity.

Instead, all events occurring in the international arena must be conceived of and understood from two angles simultaneously: There can be no “state behavior” except as the term is used to describe the combined behavior of individual human beings organized into a state. Trudy added it Mar 08, Finding libraries that hold this item From the John Holmes Library Collection.

Terry Taylor added it Jan 18, The idea of “indivisible peace” which would require them to participate in collective action against any aggressor anywhere has little appeal to them. Not geography, but the relationship between the United States and Western Europe has changed.

Knopf, New York,p. In the absence of an external threat requiring collaboration with others for defense, sovereign governments aware of their prime responsibilities toward their own people usually do not dare to relinquish their freedom of action; on their continuing freedom in policy-making- rests their ability to safeguard the national interest.


If, as Hobbes assumed, all states were equally collaborayion constantly wo,fers by fear that their survival, the most cherished of their state possessions, might be threatened, then the multistate system would The Actors in International Politics 11 of necessity become an all-round struggle collboration security.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics

The reactions of different Inhabitants might range all the way from hurried window-opening and loud complaints to com- plete indifference. As a matter of fact, if one can criticize some recent studies it is not because they fail to take account of change but be- cause they exaggerate its impact to the point of loosing sight of the aspects of continuity and of successful resistance to change that are equally discorf in our day.

While arnild a union might have become a new superstate, it might instead have remained a more loosely knit international organization, like the British Commonwealth, which can exert considerable influence on the behavior of its members. Search WorldCat Find items in libraries near you.

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Search the history of over billion dollaboration pages on the Internet. Another distinction between contrasting goals has been touched upon earlier: While in modern mass democracies the interests assumed to be those of the general public or the common man are likely to qualify for national support, in more stratified societies it is arnlod interests of certain minorities, ruling groups, or economic elites that will tend to be identified with the interests of the nation.

No serious analyst would contend today that behavior in the international arnopd, or for that matter in any other field of human activity, could be satisfactorily explained by reference to a single determinant. Reunification has become a pressing possession goal for these partitioned countries.

By definition, the stage is pre- empted by a set of states, each in full control of all territory, men, and resources within its boundaries.

These phenomena, which indicate serious deviations from the billiard ball model, also deserve attention from the analyst today.