Army Alpha Examination; U.S. Army Alpha Intelligence Test The Army Alpha [5] was developed shortly after the United States entered World War I by an. Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence testing were crucial in assessing and classifying individual soldiers during World War I. This testing. The correlation of Army Alpha with academic marks in high schools and military academies yields an appreciably higher correlation for the latter group.

Author: Mikagore Kagakinos
Country: Russian Federation
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Automotive
Published (Last): 26 July 2006
Pages: 124
PDF File Size: 18.91 Mb
ePub File Size: 16.86 Mb
ISBN: 939-1-25375-768-3
Downloads: 40427
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Gardamuro

If for a given score wide deviations occur in the number of errors, the error score of a subject intelegennce be of value in giving additional information about him”. Another month was spent thoroughly testing the methods in military stations so that their value might be definitely established before they should be recommended to the Medical Department of the Army.

Over 7, men had been recommended for immediate discharge; 10, had been recommended for labor battalions or other service organizations; 9, had been recommended for development battalions for further observation and preliminary training. Opera- tionalizing Yerkes’s conclusion, in “Plan for Psychological Military Service,” arjy intelligence rankings must be correlated with some measure of military success, Thorndike’s unit divided the test population into three groups—adult defectives, en- listed men, and students in officer training camps—and determined how each had performed on the test.

Thus it is an open question to what degree the pictures advanced by Bruno Intelrgence and Steve Woolgar or Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer of science as an immensely flexible, negotiated endeavor can be applied when the need to convince crosses community boundaries. Nevertheless, I have concluded that in such close observation the defects of this system are unduly magnified and the substantial accuracy of the average result lost sight of.


Revising the Test

Men who fail in Army Beta are referred for individual examination by means of what may appear to be the most suitable and altogether appropriate procedure among the varied methods available. Presidio, ; and Timothy K. The examination required approximately fifty minutes. No mechanism had ever existed in the military to accomplish this, and no kind of information, before intelligence testing, was avail- able that would have differentiated to so fine a degree among the vast majority of enlisted men.

While the Yerkes- Bridges Point Scale was not quite so heterogeneous, it too made use of a number of different tasks, though ones that could be used across age levels. To prove conclusively that a man was weak-minded and not merely indifferent or malingering, the performance test was added. HainesLewis TermanG. The story of the entrance of “intelligence” into the American military is the story of how a group of American scientists, in the process of offering their services to 14 Newton D.


The results were gratifying and the methods were therefore recommended to the Surgeon General of the Army in Augustand promptly accepted for official trial. There was as yet no consensus, within either psychology or American culture in general, as to the degree, above a bare minimum, to which intelligence was a critical factor in individual achievement. From the standpoint of the history of the human sciences, only as American in- names of individual officers in the Adjutant General’s Office document files.

No amount of school instruction will ever make them intelligent voters or capable citizens. Norms are given in terms of percentiles for the adult population.

Psy- chologists thus could not armj impose their knowledge on the military; rather, they had to persuade various members of the officer corps that psychological conceptions of “intelligence” were either better than or at least the same as military notions. Text eight subtests of the original Alpha have been retained. In the military, however, things were differ- ent, as Yerkes was made acutely aware when the navy rejected his overtures ex- plicitly because of worries that malingerers might manipulate psychological methods to avoid their “proper” service.

Three answers are given to each question. Yerkes and Yoakum state, “It was repeatedly stated and emphasized by psychological examiners that a man’s value to the service should not be judged by his intelligence alone, but that instead temperamental characteristics, reliabilityability to lead and to “carry on” under varied conditions should be taken into account. The army intelligence examination had been given to 1, men; of these 41, were officers. Many men of the commissioned officer type and a large amount of non-commissioned officer material.

Army Alpha – Wikipedia

Classification nitelegence Selection of Personnel for U. Everything changed, however, with mobilization for the war. As the commanding officer of the 41st Company at Camp Lee graphically put it, “In selecting corporals and line sergeants the physical qualifications will ordinarily supersede the mental. See Yerkes et al. For each test a series of sample items correctly answered was given.

Thinking with Eyes and Hands,” Knowledge and Society: For concern about fitting testing into accelerated training schedules see, e. The complex of motives, ranging from patriotism to professional op- portunism, that informed the actions of these psychologists and the programs they initiated have been ably analyzed by a number of historians, including Thomas Cam- field, Daniel Kevles, Franz Samelson, and Richard von Mayrhauser. American psychologists lost little time in following suit.

The norms for IQ are derived from a comparison of the percentile norms with those offered by Terman and Merrill for the distribution of IQ’s in the American white population”. Read the case of Carrie Buck to learn about sterilization laws in the United States and to consider the impact that eugenics had on laws and public policy.


You are-to look at the answers carefully; then make a cross in the square before the best answer to each question, as in the sample: Thorndike had long believed in the composite, heterogeneous character of intelligence, and thus he argued that each context demanded its own measure of mental ability. In discussing one of the tests excluded from Army a, for example, Yerkes pointed out that “it was generally agreed that the Trabue type of completion test is a better measure of intelligence than some of the other tests finally accepted, as for example, the number-comparison or memory-for-digits tests.

Spurred on, in all probability, by a highly negative report on army testing submitted by Lieutenant Colonel Lear of the War Plans Division, three full-scale investigations of the military value of the examining program were launched in May. This is the Beta version of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test, which was created by Lewis Terman, a professor of education at Stanford University.

The remaining men are sent to the alpha room. Moreover, the lives of some individuals were deeply affected by the scores they attained. Andrews was described as “an excellent, well-equipped, all around officer, intelligent and competent”; while of Lieutenant Colonel A. In the process of making that tesy, psychologists were forced to adopt military cri- teria of success as one of the benchmarks against which to calibrate their instruments.

In short, southern and eastern Europeans, the Alpine and Mediterranean nations with minimal scores on the army tests, should be kept out. The ability to handle men, the gift of making men follow is seldom shown on paper. How does this test seem to define intelligence?

March, Surgeon General Gorgas emphasized two features: Imagine you are in a large examination room. They were the first written IQ tests to gain respect, and they provided essential technology for implementing the hereditarian ideology that advanced … the testing and ranking of all children.

Byers to Secretary of War, 10 Apr. Confronted with a choice between psychological and military standards, the Vineland psychol- ogists proved willing to sacrifice, to a certain degree, even the construct they in- tended to measure in order to build an instrument that would fit army conditions and needs.

Government Printing Office,pp. The eugenicists battled and won one of the greatest victories of scientific racism in American history.