Methods of education of children
Depending on the age of the child, his behavior and personality, parents can apply a variety of methods of education. Used parents choice of methods largely depends on how educated the parents, what is the level of their pedagogical and psychological knowledge, etc.
Important role in the selection of methods of education is the parent’s behavior, which can be authoritarian, democratic and complacent.
Parenting techniques not only allow to form a harmonious, Mature personality, sometimes they become the causes of many psychological complexes.
Basic methods of education
A method of conversation or persuasion. This method can be applied in the education of children of different ages and with any character. During the conversation, the parent explains and argues how one ought to behave in a given situation, figures out the motives of behavior of the baby. Your tone of voice a parent conversation needs to be calm, confident, solid. Even year-old kids who can’t answer, listen carefully to the parents, reacting to the intonation.
Method of positive reinforcement. Reinforcements are certain steps parents, following action or deed. Reinforcement can be positive or negative (positive). Negative reinforcement we refer simply comments, punishment, positive — praise, gratitude, positive action on the part of the parent (to give a piece of candy, turn on cartoons, to give a new toy).
Method of positive reinforcement is to Express the child of positive emotions caused by his action. If the kid did something right and good, it is always necessary to praise, to Express their appreciation, it can be a smile, a kiss, hugs, nice words, “You’re a good girl, well done, doing the right thing” or another action that causes the baby’s pleasurable sensations and positive emotions.
Negative reinforcement method is based on expressing the child’s negative attitude to his actions. This may be a reproach (“You did bad, you have upset the parents“), comment (“This is a bad thing, good kids don’t do that”), punishment.
The punishment may be different. One type of effective punishment is the timeout, while the baby is left alone for a while, barring anything to do and not communicating with him. In families where punishment is widely used the timeout as a rule, there is a special place where the baby leave for some time, it can be a chair, stool, corner, getting to this place, the child understands that he did a bad deed and punished for it.
Punishment can also be a fine. The bad thing you can pick up one of the toys the kid can be banned from watching cartoons or movies, to reduce the time of games. Don’t need as fine to use activities that the child should perform with pleasure. For example, to get him to read or write, clean up the room, wash dishes. This will lead to the fact that the child will perceive these actions as extremely unpleasant and will avoid running these processes. The penalty may be deprivation of sweets or other Goodies (but not food).
Method of training, maybe it sounds a bit harsh, but so is a method of positive and negative reinforcement. The basis of the method: for good behavior — positive reinforcement for bad behavior — negative. Sometimes this method is also called “method of carrot and stick approach” or “method of rewards and punishments“. The basic principle of all these methods are identical, but eats a number of differences, such as method of dog training, involves positive reinforcement and the rewards imply rewarding. For example, the child washed the dishes, praise immediately after the process is reinforcement, and the promise to go with him on a weekend in the Park award.
The method of “1-2-3“. Effective method of education in those times when it is necessary to immediately stop the bad behavior of the child. The method consists in the fact that the parent makes a remark to the child about his behavior and starts to count to three, if at the end of the account, the child does not cease to behave badly should be punished. Method is used with children older than two years. Counting to three, and making the spaces between the digits for a few seconds (4-6 seconds), the parent gives the child a chance to change their mind, change their behavior and get out of the situation without punishment. If the baby does not respond to the comments of the adult and continues to misbehave after counting “3“, it is necessary to enforce punishment.
Using this method, parents should remain calm and not to lose confidence, the bill should be clear, confident voice, if the kid realize that the parent be on edge, can continue its action, in the hope that he will be able to succeed.
The method of “broken record“. Often in response to their demands, the parent gets a lot of excuses and objections from the child, and enters into an argument with him, resulting in not reaching your goal and only loses time. For example: “Mary, get dressed, have to go to kindergarten,” “I don’t want in the garden“, “No, you have to go to daycare and mom at work“, “I wanna stay home“, “I can’t stay home“, etc. Explaining to the kid incomprehensible things, mom is just wasting her time and starts to go out of balance. This conversation can be continued indefinitely. Should the mother cease to engage in explanations and repeat their demands, as the child begins to perform what you need. “Mary, get dressed, have to go to kindergarten,” “I do not want to kindergarten,” “Mary, you have to dress up and go“, “I want you to stay home,” “Mary, get dressed, we’ll go to the garden“, seeing that the mother is not going to about and continue the conversation useless, the child begins to dress.
Many parents in the education process use the method of physical action (slapping, hitting, beating). A definite answer to the expense of the efficiency of this method of education is still not found. It is no secret that until recently, Lasher was not only used to punish the children but also for adults. Today psychologists say physical punishment method as the most inefficient and traumatic for the younger person. If you are a supporter of the use of physical effects on the child, try to apply this method only in extreme cases, extraordinary. First we need to establish with a child physical contact, and try to influence him humanely.