Socio-psychological mechanisms of communication
Communication creates a number of unique social and psychological mechanisms through which is formed the social psyche.
Infection is a special method of exposure, a certain way of uniting large groups of people. The phenomenon of infection has diverse manifestations, such as dance, sports gambling, situatii panic, religious ecstasy, etc.
Infection is unconscious, spontaneous form of inclusion of the individual in certain mental States, as well as the total empathy of the mental state of a large group of people simultaneously.
Contamination is the transfer of mental attitude, with a strong emotional charge, the intensity of feelings and passions. The basis of the occurrence of infection — the emotional impact in terms of direct contact.
The source of infection is the carrier of the emotional charge the inductor. He passes the charge, which then is magnified in the interaction channels. There is a mental background contamination. He is in direct proportion to the size of audience and the extent of installation of the temperature of the inductor. As this emotional state occurs in the mass, there is a mechanism of multiple mutually reinforcing emotional influences people communicating. The individual here is not experiencing an organized deliberate pressure, but just unconsciously assimilates samples of someone’s behavior, merely submitting to it.
The effect takes place primarily in the unorganized community, most often in the crowd, which in itself acts as a kind of accelerator, like “driving” a certain emotional state. (Characteristics of crowds are dealt with in topic 20.)
Features of infection: increased group cohesion, if such unity is already there, and the compensation is insufficient cohesion.
The suggestion is purposeful, unjustified influence of one person to another or to a group. During infusion of information is perceived uncritically. It is assumed that the person taking the information through the mechanism of suggestion, not capable of critical evaluation.
A suggestion of a socio-psychological mechanism of communication that focuses on the creation of a common mental state and motives of individual or mass action. As an active and personalized exposure of one subject to another, suggestion is mainly verbal actions. It is not addressed logical thinking, and emotional readiness of the person to receive installation. The most effective suggestion affects people, which are characterized by the dominance of situational mental attitude, as well as the state of self-doubt.
To the basic terms of the effectiveness of suggestion include .
the credibility of the source information;
trust in him;
the lack of resistance to suggestive influence.
Noticed that most easily suggestible children, and also people weary, weakened physically. It is particularly important to “trust effect” to the source of information. The inspiring authority performs the function of so-called indirect reasoning, a kind of compensator missing direct argument that m is a specific feature suggestion.
Social psychologists seek to establish a distinction between suggestion and contamination, based on the following considerations .
— when the infection is empathy a large mass of people overall mental state. The same suggestion does not imply and does not offer such equality in the sharing of identical emotions: awe (suggestor) not subjected here to the same condition as the unusualy (sugerente);
— the process of suggestion has to be one-sided: it is not spontaneous toning group, and personified, the active influence of one person to another or to a group;
— the suggestion, as a rule, is verbal in nature, whereas during infection, in addition to speech influence, and used other means — shouting, rhythms, etc.
Belief is a socio — psychological mechanism of communication, the process and the result of program-target effects. Convinced some of the information is converted into a system of attitudes and principles of personality. Persuasion is achieved socio-psychological impact of the cash.
Belief is also a system of logical evidence, critically-oriented customized personality. Condition persuasive impact is the interest of the person whom the impact. Interest is the desire to obtain certain information and the need to think about anything.
Persuasion as the process involves the impact on rational and emotional sphere of personality. This active interaction, developing into the discussion. Conditions of effectiveness of the persuasive impact .
— the content and form of beliefs meet the age level of personality development;
— belief is built taking into account the individual characteristics of the recipient;
— belief is a consistent and evidence-based;
— the belief contains both General provisions (principles and rules), and specific facts or examples;
— the belief is based on the mind convinces, his experience and knowledge;
convincing himself believes deeply in what convinces. The process of persuasion is a psychological system of reasoning and evidence, as well as emotional drugs operating contagious to assure. The belief is focused on the formation of conscious activity assure.
The difference between persuasion and suggestion is that the suggestion does not need any proof and logic. The conviction meant that the person receiving the information agrees with it. The receiving the information output of make on their own.
When the suggestion is achieved not consent, but simply accepting information based on the finished output. The conviction is a predominantly intellectual, and a suggestion of’ predominantly emotional impact.
Imitation is the socio-psychological mechanism of communication, ensuring the reproduction of one man certain patterns of behavior (manners, actions, behavior) that have a certain emotional coloring. The theoretical concept of the mechanism of imitation developed by G. Tarde. In General terms, it boils down to this.
Imitation is a fundamental principle of the development and existence of society, as a result of imitation occur group norms and values. Imitation emerges as a special case of a more General “global law of repetition”. In the animal world this law is implemented through heredity in human society through imitation. It is the source of progress: periodically in society are made of the invention, which imitate the masses.
There are several types of imitation .
— logical and illogical;
— internal and external;
— imitation-fashion and imitation custom.
Formulated some laws be followed. In particular .
— the imitation goes from internal to external, i.e. internal samples is called the imitation of earlier than external;
lowest on the social ladder imitate the highest.
There are three ways followed .
— when by observing the model are new reactions;
— when monitoring the rewarding or punishment model strengthens or weakens the pent-up behavior;
— when kalkilya model helps to actualize patterns of behavior, previously known watching.
A special case of acts of imitation fashion. Fashion is very specific and dynamic standardized form of mass behavior that occurs most often spontaneously under the influence of the dominant in a society of rapidly changing moods and Hobbies.
Fashion — and social sanction behavior, tastes and system value orientation, it is a means of socio-psychological compensation dissatisfaction.
Fashion performs the following functions .
— communication (communication);
— interactive (coordination, interaction);
— compensatory (psychological protection of the individual).