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an objective and logical process by which man acts not only as an object of influence, but also as a subject of activity and communication.
Personality, like all the specifically human in the psyche is formed and revealed in the course of active interaction with the external environment and subject, by assimilation or appropriation by the individual developed public experience. In this experience directly relate to the personality system of ideas about the norms and values of life – about the General direction of the person, relationship to others, to oneself, to society, etc. In different times and different cultures, these systems are different, but their meaning is not changed and can be expressed through the concepts of “objective redbyte” or “social action plans (programs)” personality. The society organizes special activity aimed at the implementation of these plans. But each individual is also active, and the activity of the society meets its activity; the processes, which in this case are drawn, and are the most important, sometimes dramatic events in the formation and life of the individual.
Personality formation is a process of development of special areas of social experience, but very special, different from the development of knowledge, skills, etc. As a result of this development is the formation of new motives and needs, transformation, and subordination. To achieve this simple assimilation impossible – it would know the motives, but not actually operating. New needs and motives, their subordination do not arise in the assimilation, and in the experience of the accommodation: this process only happens in real life, always – emotionally intense, often – subjective creative.
The most important and major stages in the formation of personality are as follows. According To A. N. Leontief, in line with activity theory, personality “born” twice. Her first “birth” – in the preschool age when you establish a hierarchy of motives, the first direct correlation of motives with social criteria – there is the opportunity to act against immediate impulse, respectively based social. It is marked by the establishment of the first hierarchical relationships of motives, the first direct subordination of intentions social norms. So, here arises a fact that is reflected in the first criteria of a personality.
The second “birth” – at the age of adolescence and is associated with awareness of the reasons for their behavior and the ability of self-education. Is expressed in the appearance of the desire and ability to understand their motives and to work actively for their submission and resubmission. This ability of self-awareness, confidence Samorukova and self-education are reflected in the second criteria of a personality. Her commitment recorded in the legal concept of criminal responsibility.
It is extremely important for the identity theory and practice of education the question of the mechanisms of identity formation developed by far not enough.
To natural mechanisms of identity formation can be attributed to a fairly General mechanism of the shift of the motif on the goal and more specific identification mechanism and the mechanism for the adoption and development of social roles (-> the shift mechanism of the motive; the mechanism of development roles). This is the natural mechanisms, for the subject who is exposed to their action, is not conscious of them in full, and in any case they are not consciously in control. They dominated until the age of adolescence, but continue to participate in personal development together with conscious forms of campostrini. These mechanisms, to the extent that in any way relate to the development of the individual, acting in the course of common, General process predmestie needs in communication (-> need: predlzenie; need communication). This need is given in the psychology of growing importance. On fundamentals it is equated to the needs of organic: it is as vital because of its dissatisfaction leads to deterioration in the physical condition of babies and young of the higher animals, and even to their death. She is the driving force behind the formation and development of personality.
The shift mechanism of the motive operates in all stages of development of the personality, but change with age and become more complex are the main motives of communication, koi direct this shift is being developed, because as you grow all the wider the range of social contacts and relationships.
The identification mechanism begins to act from an early age: children imitate parents in everything – in manners, speech, clothing, classes. All this is played superficially, but at the same time to digest and internal traits of the parents. Very clearly seen in role-playing games, especially when playing in the family. A characteristic feature of identification is that it passes, especially at the beginning, regardless of the consciousness of the child, and is not controlled completely by the parents. This gives educators a special responsibility for the quality of the self. At a later age stages tremendously expands the range of persons, from which you select the sample object identification. These may include not only real people, familiar or unfamiliar, but literary characters. But usually there comes a time when “sample” loses its attractiveness and subjective importance, and this is natural: personality took sample from something important and necessary, but do it your way. Getactualsize sample marks the completion of a certain stage in the development of personality, its rise to a new level: it turns out that there was a new relationship, new motives, and it makes set new goals and seek new ideals.
The mechanism for the adoption and development of social roles also works with the early, preschool age: senior preschool child dreams of becoming a student, etc. This mechanism is similar in many respects to the mechanism of identification, but is much more General; there is often a lack personalization developed benchmark-social role or social position. Many aspects of the process of entering the role, its development and implementation is “hot spots” in life. Often dream about roles – in these dreams occupy a significant role in the understanding of how the individual will look in the new, desired role. These experiences reflect a desire to appear before others in a new form, according to the new role. At a more advanced phase, the individual is often fused with the role, she becomes part of his personality, and the loss of familiar roles is experienced as a loss of a part of the personality. Close to this situation and temporary “obessolivanija” – in severe diseases, natural disasters, etc.
The development of social roles is directly related to the formation and life of the individual, since in the course:
1) there are new motives;
2) the subordination of motives;
3) changing belief systems, values, ethics and attitudes.
All of these mechanisms of identity formation can take and lucid form, but awareness is not necessary for their operation, and often impossible. As a rule, all these mechanisms act together, intertwined and mutually amplifying, and only a mental abstraction allows us to consider them separately.