The Influence of intervals between births
It must be emphasized that great importance is the duration of the intervals between births. So, if the family are two more children, the sibling (with a difference of up to two years), they have the features of older and younger children are very mild, they do not have time to realize the difference in the attitude of parents. The eldest child in this case did not have to play the role of “guardian” Junior, take care of it. If children of different gender, in a psychological sense, and the youngest child to parents — “firstborn”, psychological first child, for example the first son. In this case, some of the patterns belonging to the firstborn (namely, that its development is again for the mother and father the opening of the new), applies to the second child of the other sex (as the development and nurturing of a baby boy after the experience of raising a girl — for new parents).
The same regularities are possible in a family with several children, where children grow “pairs” (boy—girl). An example of this is the Ulyanov family, which was like three pairs: older children: Anna and Sasha medium: Volodya (the future leader of the revolution in Russia) and Junior – Mitya and named maniasha (Mary), of whom the whole family perceived as small to old age.
The difference between children of 4-5 years are very complicated, since for the oldest child in this case should meet the following requirements: “the older You get, give”, “shame on you, you’re big”, while this child is still small. The older in this case is formed kind of “fatigue” from the younger children – he quite often to stay with a small house or pick it up from child care facilities, and the firstborn from very early childhood growing up. Often in this case, the senior may manifest jealousy, envy younger or internal aggression towards him. In particular this happens when an inept approach relatives: “She’s sweet, she’s small”. Older, especially if it is a son who can be punished in case of conflicts with the youngest child, not understanding what was going on. The youngest child, seeing his impunity may become a provocateur.
If the difference between the siblings about 10 years there are two possible ways of development of relations between them and forming their identity. It should be remembered that in this case, the first-born for a long time brought up as an only child (in its development invested a lot of material and spiritual forces families, often several generations, he is the center of attention of several adults – not just mother and father, and grandparents). The expression of Western psychologists, he is not traumatized by the appearance of a younger child, finds his “niche” among peers and friends. With the emergence of Junior the senior has already its own interests and it is in some cases absolutely indifferent to the younger.
In our country extended another variant of the formation of children in the family with an age difference of about ten years. When busy mother at work (especially if there is no father) older sibling bear the brunt of concerns about younger – visit kindergartens, schools, etc. “It grew on my hands,” says, as an adult, the older sister of the younger. The mother of these children usually justify this situation with the words: “what could I do?” (referring to his workload). In this case, the first-born (especially girls) are formed in the characteristics of the older sharp, even excessive form is in adulthood, very responsible, serious, normative, somewhat boring person, might look like (because of his behavior) older than his passport years. Oddly enough, with this actual personal maturity, the eldest daughter in this case is more complicated to arrange his personal life, to marry. In women, former senior parent in the family, sometimes there are cases of late birth of children (consciously due to accumulated since childhood fatigue from care for younger siblings or even in the form of temporary infertility).
With considerable difference (15-20 years between siblings) eldest child actually grows up as the only. In large families, especially before the revolution and during the Soviet decades) older child often played a parental role due to the heavy workload of the mother’s household duties.
In modern conditions such a difference between children in the family happens often in two-children families, children usually come from different marriages. Senior may already be “in echelon parents”, to play the role of uncle (aunt) – to give gifts, to spoil, but the interaction between minor siblings, rare. The older brother (sister) might already be in its life (for example, the oldest is twenty and the youngest three years), their interests outside the home.
If children were born from one father, the late birth of a child may play the role of stabilizer of marriage, to make relationships between spouses. The same might be true when remarriage. At this late child again actually grows as a single, when elderly parents (40 years or more, so by the end of they school the mother may already be retirement age).
The education of the child is a special topic of research, but there is no doubt that in this case there is a great awareness, meaningfulness in the care of the child from the parents on the basis of existing experience in the education of first-born, who my parents are trying. However, the strength of the parents (mother) is already much less than in the education of the older (in his youth, much is done effortlessly, between work, school and other activities, and generally help older relatives). Therefore the education of younger late of the child is given with great difficulty, with great experiences.
Modern psychologists evaluate the effects of sibling status on the development of each child’s personality somewhat more skeptical than previous generations of psychologists. Craig notes that in fact there is no such individual characteristics that would depend only on the order of birth (2002). Some part of personal experience related to birth order, while the other part is associated with the disease, changes in financial position of the family, changes in relationships with peers at school, has no relation to the order of birth (Bower, 1991).
The differences in the amount of intelligence, which are based on birth order, expressed in the form of weak trends. The firstborn IQ (the factor of intellectual development) higher than second children; the second IQ higher than that of the third, etc. (Zajonc, Markus, 1975). The differences are small, but seem convincing, consider Hell and Ziegler. Zajonc created to explain the regularities of the so-called “model merging”, according to which the intellectual development of each person depends on the amount of intellectual stimulation from my childhood. The first win, as they live originally in “enriched” intellectual environment with two adults, each of the following in order of birth all children receive less attention.
Craig notices that much large and persistent differences in accounting for family size. The more children in a family, the lower is the ratio of their intellect and the less likely they finish higher education. It is noted that this correlation persists even when controlling for factors such as family structure (family or not) and its income (Blake, 1989).
Other researchers argue that the structure of the family and its income has a significant influence on IQ and achievement children – even more than the order of birth and number of children (Ernst, Angst, 1983).